In physics, Planck’s constant is the minimum energy transfer possible and is thus the basic unit of energy. In quantum realism, the quantum process is the smallest change possible because it is the basic quantum network operation. It follows that Planck’s constant represents the basic quantum network process. We see the energy of light changing across the electromagnetic spectrum but in this model every photon is based on the same quantum process. The smallest act the quantum network can do is its basic operation and that creates the simplest existence, namely a photon of light. Equally no physical change can be less than one Planck unit which in this model is the net processing of a photon. That this processing is divided over the nodes of a photon’s wavelength is why its energy is frequency multiplied by Planck’s constant.

Yet in the last chapter, Plank’s constant defined the size of space, as if it were smaller atoms would be smaller and if it were larger quantum effects would be more evident. Why should the basic unit of energy also define the size of space? There is no reason in current physics for what defines the smallest unit of space to also define the smallest unit of energy.

In this model, Planck’s constant is the basic energy unit because no change on the quantum network can be less than the basic network command, which is envisaged as setting a transverse circle of values. In the last chapter, movement depended on a node’s planar circle of neighbors, that by Pythagoras’s theorem defines the “distance” between nodes. The number of nodes in a transverse circle defines the basic energy unit and the number of nodes in a planar circle defines the size of space. If the quantum network is symmetric, transverse and planar circles will be the same size, so if Planck’s constant reflects the size of a transverse circle, it will also define the size of the planar circle that defines space. In network terms, this “size” reflects the quantum network density based on the number of connections each node has to others. Planck’s constant defines both space and energy because it represents the quantum network density that creates both.