Planck’s constant is the basic unit of energy in physics so it’s the smallest possible energy transfer. If a Planck process is the fundamental quantum network operation, then Planck’s constant represents that process. The electromagnetic spectrum has many types of light, but if every photon is the same process spread out more or less, the simplest existence is based on the fundamental network process. Planck’s constant is a tiny energy transfer in our terms but at the quantum scale, one Planck process is the maximum node bandwidth. Since the total processing of any photon is just that, the smallest energy transfer is one photon. In our terms, the energy of a photon is a multiple of Planck’s constant but in quantum terms, the Planck process is divided over the photon’s wavelength.

In the last chapter, Plank’s constant defined the size of space as if it were smaller, atoms would be smaller and if it were larger, quantum effects would be more evident. Why then does the basic unit of energy also define the size of space? Current physics can’t explain why what defines the smallest unit of distance also defines the smallest unit of energy.

In this model, Planck’s constant is the basic energy unit because there is a core network process that sets values in a transverse circle whose number of nodes defines Planck’s constant. The last chapter defined distance as the number of node-to-node transfers, so the smallest distance is that between two nodes, which is a Planck length in physics. If each node set a planar circle of neighbors whose number defines its circumference, the circumference of that circle defines its radius which is by definition the smallest distance of space. Thus, the number of nodes in a transverse circle defines the basic energy unit and the number of nodes in a planar circle defines the size of space.

If the quantum network is symmetric, transverse and planar circles will contain the same number of nodes. So if Planck’s constant reflects the transverse circle size that defines the smallest unit of energy, it must also define the planar circle size that defines the smallest unit of space. In network terms, the basic units of energy and space depend on the quantum network density that defines the number of neighbor connections each node can have in a circle around it. Planck’s constant defines both space and energy because it derives from the quantum network density that creates both.