QR4.4 Quarks

All the matter we see is made of atoms whose mass comes almost entirely from their nuclei, which are made of quarks. Quarks are the fundamental constituent of all the matter we see but their charges come in unexpected thirds for no known reason. Yet they obey the equations of matter, so a model that explains electrons must also explain quarks.

QR4.4.1 A Three-way Interaction

QR4.4.2 Filling a Node Plane

QR4.4.3 Quark Phases

QR4.4.4 The Strong Force

QR4.4.5 Protons and Neutrons

QR4.4.6 The Weak Force

QR4.4.7 The God Particle

QR4.4.8 Mass and Energy

QR4.4.9 Review