Rigorous. Rigor is the degree to which research has scientific merit and avoids bias in any form. It includes that the research design, measuring instruments,statistical methods and data analysis are correct and appropriate. It leads one to accept that the findings are valid and the conclusions are correct.It can be calledScientific Merit”,Quality of research design”, “Adequacy of data analysis”, “Validity of method,Legitimacy of conclusionsorConduct of research. Rigor is based on following accepted scientific method, e.g. using the right statistics for the data gathered. It answers reader concerns like“Can I trust this?” andWhy should I believe the paper’s results?Rigor is important because there is little point publishing results that people think have no foundation in evidence.

Elements. To check if a paper is rigorous, consider research elements such as:

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