Original. Research is original if it is new in some way that differs from what has been done before. Any section can be original, as research may address a new problem, develop a new theory, use a new method or analysis, or discuss new applications or have new implications. Even a replication that repeats a previous study can be original if it is the first attempt, or if it varies a factor not considered before. Original research must differ in some way from what has gone before. To say what has been said many times before or discover what has already been discovered is not original. It can also be calledContribution to the field”, Uniqueness”, “Adds value” or “Newness”. Originality addresses the reader concern “Is there anything new here?” Research that is rare or unique is pioneering, as a pioneer is the first to explore a new area and discover new things. Originality is important because readers are attracted to what is new.

Elements. To check if a paper is original, consider research elements such as:

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