Chapter 4 Questions

The following questions are addressed in this chapter. They are better discussed in a group to allow a variety of opinions to emerge. The relevant section link is given after each question:

1. How do mass and charge relate? (QR4.3.2)

2. Why are electrons and neutrinos both classified as leptons? (QR4.3.3)

3. Why do neutrinos have a tiny mass but no charge? (QR4.3.3)

4. Why is our universe made of matter instead of anti-matter? (QR4.3.5)

5. If anti-particles run time in reverse, can they go backwards in time? (QR4.3.6)

6. Why do quarks have strange one-third charges? (QR4.4.3)

7. What causes the strong force that binds quarks in the nucleus of an atom? (QR4.4.4)

8. Why does this quark binding get stronger with distance? (QR4.4.4)

9. Why are three quarks needed to form a proton or neutron? (QR4.4.5)

10. What do the quark “colors” of the standard model represent? (QR4.4.5)

11. What turns neutrons in space into protons? Why don’t protons in space decay? (QR4.4.6)

12. Does the Higgs cause any of the mass around us? Why is it said to “cause mass”? (QR4.4.7)

13. Why does the energy inherent in all matter depend on the speed of light? (QR4.4.8)

14. Why does string theory need eleven dimensions to work? (QR4.5.1)

15. What did Newton think caused gravity? Does current physics agree? What does the evidence suggest? (QR4.5.2)

16. Why are forces due to virtual particles called “magical” despite being lawful? (QR4.5.2)

17. What rules does current physics apply to decide when virtual particles interact? (QR4.5.3)

18. Has the standard model ever explained any new evidence without expanding itself? (QR4.5.4)

19. What is the key difference between an equation and a theory? How do you assess each? (QR4.5.5)

20. How is the standard model of physics similar to the standard model of medieval astronomy? (QR4.5.6)

21. Are the standard model’s fundamental particles actually particles? Are they fundamental? Explain. (QR4.5.7)

22. How does a processing model classify the basic entities of physics? (QR4.5.8)

23. Why does quantum realism’s claim that matter is made of photons contradict the standard model? (QR4.5.9)

24. What came first, matter or light? Give a reason for your answer (QR4.5.9)

25. Why do all higher atomic nuclei need neutrons? (QR4.6.1)

26. An atom of lead has 82 electrons in a small space. Why don’t they collide with each other? (QR4.6.2)

27. How do electrons “fill” the shells and sub-shells of an atom? (QR4.6.3)

28. Can electrons as point-particles spin? What can spin? Why do electrons “half-spin”? (QR4.7.1)

29. Why are neutrinos always left-handed? (QR4.7.2)

30. Why are protons much heavier than the quarks from which they are made? (QR4.7.3)

31. Why is the universe charge neutral? (QR4.7.4)

32. Why do leptons and quarks have three family generations, then no more? (QR4.7.5)

33. Why are the higher generations of leptons and quarks increasingly heavy? (QR4.7.5)

34. What is dark matter? Why can’t we see it? How does it differ from ordinary matter? (QR4.7.6)

35. What is dark energy? Why can’t a particle model explain it? (QR4.7.7)

36. Is our universe dead or alive? Give reasons. (QR4.8.1)

37. Why is our universe “finely tuned” for life? (QR4.8.2)

38. What are the quantum evolution equivalents of biology’s reproduction, variation and selection? (QR4.8.3)

39. Was our universe “built” as a watchmaker builds a watch? If not, how did we arise? (QR4.8.4)

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