Electrons are critical to our world as without them there would be no chemistry and no life, but our universe also contains a “little nothing” that until recently we didn’t even know existed – the neutrino. The sun floods the earth with vast numbers of them each day that mostly pass through us like ghosts. The neutrino seems quite pointless, so why did nature make so many of them?
The standard model expects neutrinos to have no mass at all as they have no charge but their tiny mass was how we detected them in the first place. When asked why neutrinos have a non-zero mass but exactly zero charge, the standard model is silent.
In this model, the same photons that collide in-phase to give an electron in Figure 4.3 can collide out-of-phase as in Figure 4.5. Both “collisions” overload all the channels of an axis but while photon heads meeting gives an electron, heads and tails meeting mostly cancel to give the smudge on space we call a neutrino. So rather than a “building block” that seems to have no use, a neutrino is an alternative option required by the creation of electrons. Note that a tail-tail meet isn’t possible because it implies a prior head-head meet.
But if a neutrino is an electron-type collision in a different phase, why doesn’t its mass processing cancel entirely as its charge does? Perfectly synchronized head and tail processes would cancel but the quantum network, like the Internet, has no central control to synchronize it. The universal flow of light synchronizes adjacent nodes (2.4.4) but it isn’t perfect, so the photons in a neutrino don’t exactly cancel. Over many channels, these asynchronies give the small processing excess we call its mass, although the processing left over still exactly cancels. The neutrino’s tiny mass but zero charge reflect the asynchrony of the quantum network.
To recap, a node of space offers many quantum channels for every axis through it. The full set of channels for any transfer axis are a channel set, and it has a finite bandwidth just as each channel does. Table 4.2 describes electrons and neutrinos in terms of channel set bandwidth, where:
1. Total processing. Is the total processing, regardless of sign, that the local node must handle. If this “fills” the channel set bandwidth, the channels repeatedly overload in a stable result.
2. Net processing. Is the net processing after opposite displacements cancel out. It defines the mass as the ongoing server processing calls needed.
3. Remainder. The net processing left undone is charge.
Electrons and neutrinos are then brother leptons by their common one-axis photon structure, even though one is something and the other almost nothing. Quantum processing repeatedly overloading all the channels of a node axis gave electrons and neutrinos as the first matter.