These definitions are based on current physics, computer science and quantum realism (QR), where the first two are accepted but the latter is a new interpretation of quantum theory. Each term links to the chapter section that discusses it in more detail. Just click on it to go there for more details.
Anti-time. Feynman diagrams show anti-matter entering reactions going backwards in time. In QR, anti-matter time passes “in reverse” cycles because it is matter processing in reverse.
Asynchrony. When processors cycle at their own rate with no common clock. The asynchronous quantum network is somewhat synchronized by light transfer interrupts but this method is imperfect.
Bandwidth. The capacity of a transfer channel to accept information or processing. In QR, the bandwidth of one transfer channel between two nodes of the quantum network is one quantum process.
Black hole. A region of space with gravity so strong that not even light can escape from it, produced when a large enough mass collapses under its own gravity to a point singularity of infinite density. In QR, a black hole represents the bandwidth of space and does not exist as a singularity.
Boson. An integer spin particle, like a photon, that does not collide with itself. All the virtual particles of current physics are said to be bosons. In QR, these “force particles” are unnecessary.
Breit-Wheeler process. A hypothetical process whereby photons create mass.
Cartesian space. A space that is defined based on orthogonal line dimensions, so any point in it can be represented by coordinates (x, y, z, …), that are its real number extent on each dimension.
Casimir effect. Two conducting plates placed close together in a vacuum experience a force pushing them together, illustrating that empty space is not empty.
Channel. How a network node connects to another node. In QR, it is a quantum node’s ability to accept processing vibrating at right angles to the polarization plane of an incoming photon, where each channel has a processing bandwidth of one quantum process.
Channel set. The full set of channels for any node transfer axis, that can accept a ray of light that contains photons in every possible polarization plane.
Charge. An inherent property of matter that causes electrical effects. In QR, it is the constant after a processing overload creates mass, and so is a byproduct of mass.
Client-server relation. A network relation that partitions work between a server resource and one or more clients, whether a server transferring a document to a client printer or a photon server transferring processing to quantum network node.
Complex plane. The “imaginary” complex plane into which light vibrates, according to current physics. In QR, complex numbers represent a quantum dimension that actually exists.
Consciousness. The unalloyed capacity to experience a physical observation.
Conservation of photons. That the number of active photons in the universe has been constant since inflation stopped.
Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory. Bohr’s 1920 dualism that quantum waves can exist for the purpose of physics calculations but not “really” exist. It let quantum theory be a useful description of nothing. The QR interpretation of quantum theory is that it describes what actually generates physical events.
Cosmic background radiation. Light from the early universe that was once white hot but is now cold by the expansion of space. In QR, it is still visible all around us because space is spherical.
Cycle rate. The number of processing cycles per second, e.g. a gigahertz processor runs a billion cycles/second. The quantum network cycle rate is about ten million, trillion, trillion, trillion cycles per second.
Dark energy. An unknown negative energy that pushes the universe apart. In QR, it arises because new nodes of space receive but don’t transmit processing for their first cycle .
Dark matter. Gives galaxies more gravity than their stars and planets allow, to stop them flying apart. In QR, the black hole at the center of most galaxies traps light in a halo around it to create mass that is not visible as particles are.
Delayed choice two-slit experiment. A two-slit experiment where the measurement method decided after the light has passed through the slits determines whether it travels as a particle or a wave.
Distributed processing. A constant amount of processing that when shared runs slower not less.
Down quark. A first-generation quark with a strange –⅓rd charge. In QR, it is a head-head-tail three-way collision of extreme light that almost fills the channels of a node plane and has a negative remainder.
Dualism. The belief that two distinct and different realities co-exist, such as mind and body.
Einstein’s equation. E=mc2 states that the energy of matter is its mass times the speed of light squared. In QR, it can be derived from the definition of matter as trapped light.
Electric field. A field that surrounds a charge to attract or repel other charges. In QR, charges spread processing remainders on the quantum network that interact to bias the random movement of their matter.
Electromagnetic field. In current physics, a field with electrical and magnetic aspects that cause each other, although that is illogical. In QR, electricity and magnetism are caused by one quantum field.
Electromagnetic spectrum. All the frequencies of light as a sine wave vibrating in an imaginary dimension. In QR, it is the same quantum process distributed more or less on the surface of space.
Electron. A simple elementary matter particle with a negative charge. In QR, it is a head-head collision of extreme light that fills the channels of a node axis leaving a negative processing remainder.
Electron shell. Electrons in an atom occupy shells and sub-shells as waves not particles. In QR, they do so based on distance from the nucleus, harmonic and wave orientation.
Electron spin. In current physics, an electron is said to “half-spin”. In QR, this is because only half the photons of an electron are visible from any direction.
Empty space. Space that has nothing in it. In QR, empty space isn’t empty because null processing isn’t “nothing”.
Energy. A physical system’s capacity to perform work. In QR, it is the quantum processing transfer rate at the node.
Entanglement. When entangled photons leave in opposite directions, measuring the random spin of either instantly gives the other the opposite spin no matter how far apart they are. In QR, the entangling event merges two opposite spin servers, so when a new event links one server’s spin to one photon, the opposite spin server instantly runs the other wherever it is on the screen of space.
Entropy. The amount of disorder in a closed system.
Evolution. An iterative process that lets entities survive by trial and error to pass on properties to their descendants.
Existence. Physical realism defines it as having a physical reality. Quantum realism defines it as having a quantum reality.
Extreme light. The highest frequency of light, with a wavelength of two Planck lengths.
Family generations. Electrons, neutrinos and quarks have three generations, each like the last but heavier, then no more. In QR, this is because the three dimensions of space let their photon structures repeat.
Field. A mathematical method that assigns a value to every point in space, equivalent to a new dimension.
Field theory. A theory where invisible fields spawn virtual particles to cause forces like gravity, thus avoiding action at a distance.
Fundamental particle. A particle that can’t be broken down further by particle accelerators, that is assumed to have no size or substructure. In QR, fundamental particles are neither fundamental nor particles.
Gauss’s flux law. That a flux spreading in three dimensions decreases as the inverse square of its radius.
General relativity. Einstein’s theory that the force of gravity is equivalent to the force of an acceleration.
Gluons. Virtual particles that bind quarks in the atomic nucleus. In QR, photon sharing explains this so gluons are unnecessary.
Goldilocks effect. That our universe has an unreasonable number of parameters set “just right” for life, without which we couldn’t exist. QR attributes it to life evolving as best it can, given the limits of the originating quantum reality.
Graviton. A virtual particle invented to explain gravity based on no evidence whatsoever. QR attributes gravity to the quantum field gradient around matter, so gravitons are unnecessary agents.
Gravity. The force that draws matter together at a distance. In QR, the quantum field gradient around a large mass makes other matter more likely to reboot towards it.
Grounded theory. A scientific method that iteratively acquires data then forms predictive theories. Quantum realism applies grounded theory to physics.
Just-in-time computing. The strategy of leaving processing decisions until the last possible moment. In QR, light uses this strategy to define a photon’s path after it arrives.
Kinetic energy. Energy associated with the movement of matter. QR attributes it to matter acquiring photons that bias its movement in a particular direction.
Hidden variables. The idea that hidden physical causes explain what quantum theory describes. In QR, the hidden variable is quantum reality.
Higgs particle. A virtual particle invoked to explain another virtual particle that explains neutron decay.
Holographic principle. That everything physically knowable about a spatial volume transmits across the surface surrounding it. It is a necessary prediction of quantum realism.
Huygens principle. That light is a wave spreading out with each point a new wave source. In QR, it describes a processing wave spreading by instantiation.
Hypersphere. A four-dimensional sphere, whose inner surface has three dimensions just like our space.
Idealism. That the physical world is merely a reflection of something else. It underlies most religions.
Inflation. The theory that immediately after the big bang an immense anti-gravity field from nowhere expanded the universe faster than light so it didn’t form a black hole. In QR, inflation was the quantum network separating into servers and the free processing that generates our physical universe.
Information. A physical state chosen from an option set defined as Log2N, with N the number of options. Information is undefined if the value of N is unknown, so a book with no reader contains no information.
Instance. A copy of a process provided by a server that runs independently. In QR, a server with one quantum process supports instances that spread as a photon quantum wave.
Instantiation. The act of providing a process to be executed independently, e.g. a screen button instantiated from a class. A server process can instantiate any number of instances to run independently.
Interference. When two or more processes try to access the same resource, so at least one must try again, thus increasing the processing needed. In QR, processing interference causes mass to increase when quantum entities combine.
It from Bit. Wheeler’s conjecture that matter comes from processing. In QR, it is true for quantum processing.
Law of all action. That whatever is physically possible actually occurs at the quantum level, so anything that can happen eventually will happen.
Law of least action. That the action necessary to cause a physical change is always the least possible.
Life. An evolved order that is self-replicating. In QR, life is the inevitable result of the universal evolution.
Light. Currently considered to be a transverse vibration of nothing into an unreal dimension. In QR, it is a circular quantum process, distributed over many nodes, spreading on the quantum network.
Local reality. A reality that is real from within but not from without, e.g. Monopoly money is unreal outside the game but in the game, it affects what you can buy. In QR, we live in a local reality called the physical world.
Magnetic field. A field that surrounds a magnet to attract or repel other magnets. In QR, magnetism spreads quantum spin on the quantum network to interact with other magnets to bias their random movement as matter.
Many-worlds theory. The theory that every quantum choice spawns a new universe. In QR, it is a fairy tale for physicists invented to explain away quantum randomness.
Mass. A property of a matter substance that resists movement and causes gravity. In QR, it is the net quantum processing that repeatedly “hangs” the quantum network each quantum cycle.
Mass problem. That the mass of a quantum combination is many times that of its constituents, e.g. a proton mass is 100 times that of three quarks. In QR, the extra mass comes from processing interference.
Materialism. The belief that physical matter is the fundamental reality. In QR, matter only exists virtually, as quantum generated events that occur when we observe quantum reality.
Matter. A physical substance that occupies a space so other matter can’t occupy it at the same time. In QR, a large mass like the earth superposes on the space around it as gravity.
Matter time. In QR, matter time passes when it completes quantum cycles in the same node, so for light that moves on every cycle, no matter time passes.
Mass problem. That the mass of a proton is a hundred times more than the quarks that compose it, which current physics attributes to massless gluons. QR attributes it to quantum processing interference.
Measurement problem. That a quantum wave can’t be observed because any attempt to do so collapses it to a point physical event. In QR, that every physical event is an observation is fundamental to our reality.
Meson. A combination particle that has zero spin and so is a boson but carries no force. In QR, it is a matter/antimatter hybrid that has no spin because its matter and antimatter spins cancel.
Monism. The belief that there is only one reality. Physical realism is a monism, as is quantum realism.
Movement. A change in spatial location. QR allows both the node-to-node transfer of light and matter teleports.
Multiverse. The theory that many parallel universes represent alternate quantum timelines. In QR, this zombie theory reincarnates the clockwork universe idea that quantum theory demolished last century.
Murphy’s law. The informal statement that if anything can go wrong it probably will.
Network. A collection of node parts that interact with each other. In a computer network, the nodes are computing devices. In QR, quantum network nodes exchange processing.
Network density. The ratio of actual connections to possible connections, so it depends on how many links a network node has to others. In QR, the quantum network density depends on the number of neighbor nodes it links to.
Neutrino. A fundamental matter particle with a tiny variable mass but a neutral charge. In QR, it is a head-tail collision of extreme light that cancels but for a slight asynchrony.
Neutrino asymmetry. Neutrinos always spin left, reflecting an underlying asymmetry in the universe. In QR, the universe is indeed “left-handed” because the first photon chose to spin left.
Neutron. The neutral result when an up quark and two down quarks combine. In QR, these quarks share photons in a triangle structure that cancels their processing remainders.
Nihilism. The belief that everything is pointless so it doesn’t matter what one does. Every generation of humanity has faced some form of nihilism, which today is expressed as cosmic nihilism.
No-cloning theorem. That one can’t copy quantum states because reading quantum data requires a physical event that destroys it. QR adds that the quantum reality that makes quantum states can easily make more.
Node. A part of a network, e.g. a person in a social network, a device in a computer network or a hyperlink in a text network. In QR, a quantum network node is a point of space that receives, transmits and executes quantum processing.
Non-physical detection. Detecting an object without physically interacting with it. Illustrates an effect that is logically impossible in a purely physical world but is possible in ours.
Nuclear fission. Breaking apart the order of atomic nuclei to release energy, as occurs in atomic bombs.
Nuclear fusion. Joining nuclei to create energy, as when Hydrogen forms Helium in stars.
Nucleosynthesis. The building up of complex matter from simple matter by stars and supernovae.
Nucleus. The center of an atom made of protons and neutrons that contain nearly all its mass. In QR, a nucleus is a single folded quark string that needs at least one neutron between two protons.
Null process. A processing activity with no net result. In QR, empty space is envisaged as null processing.
Observer. The final destination of any information received in a physical interaction. In QR, every physical event is an interaction, so the observer is just as fundamental as the observed.
Observer effect. That how one observes a quantum entity changes its physical properties. In QR, the observer effect in physics is a necessary result of the physical world being a virtual reality.
Occam’s razor. That scientific theories should not multiply causes unnecessarily, so if two theories explain the same facts, science should prefer the simpler theory. QR considers the standard model’s virtual particles to be unnecessary causes.
Order. A measure of the degrees of freedom of a physical system, where high order implies fewer internal choices.
Particle. In current physics, any energy spike in an accelerator collision, however brief, is called a particle. In QR, all the fermion “particles” of physics are actually events, even those that persist.
Particle model. An model based on particles, e.g. the standard model explains the universe using 62 fundamental particles with inherent mass. In QR, there are no particles only quantum waves that collapse when they overload the network.
Pass-it-on protocol. A network protocol where quantum nodes share processing with their neighbors then execute whatever processing they have received.
Pauli exclusion rule. The after-the-fact rule that opposite-spin electrons can occupy the same point of space. In QR, it occurs because opposite spin electrons occupy different parts of quantum space.
Periodic table. A table of matter elements arranged by number of protons and electrons that shows recurring trends in chemical properties. In QR, it represents the evolution of matter.
Photon. A polarized pulse of light at one frequency. In QR, one photon is one quantum process distributed more or less over many node points in the quantum network.
Physical event. When physical entities interact. In QR, there are no physical entities just physical events that occur when quantum entities interact on the quantum network.
Physicalism. That the physical world is real, in and of itself, and is all that exists. It is a more sophisticated version of materialism as it includes energy. In QR, the physical world is virtual and only the quantum world really exists
Physical realism. That what exists outside us is an inherently real physical world. In QR, what exists outside us is quantum.
Physical state. The result of a physical observation that is assumed to exist regardless of the observation. In QR, there are no physical states only quantum exchanges.
Physical world. The set of observable physical events. In QR, these are really quantum events.
Planar circle. The circle of neighbor connections of a quantum network node that represent the spatial directions of a plane through a point in space.
Planck’s constant. The smallest unit of energy exchange. In QR, it represents the transfer of one quantum process per quantum cycle.
Planck’s relation. That a photon’s energy is Planck’s constant times its frequency (E=h.f). It can be derived from the postulates of quantum realism.
Planck length. The smallest possible observable physical length. In QR, it is the distance between adjacent quantum nodes.
Planck time. The smallest possible observable physical time. In QR, it is the completion of one quantum cycle.
Plato’s cave. Plato’s analogy that people see reality like prisoners in a cave, who look at a wall and take their own shadows on the wall, caused by the sunlight behind them, to be real. In QR, the physical world is just a “shadow” generated by the “sunlight” of quantum reality.
Point particle. In current physics, a quark is a dimensionless point of no size. Since points of no size can’t add to occupy space like a substance can, they are said to be kept apart by virtual particles from invisible fields. In QR, a “point particle” is a quantum entity in a Planck size node of the quantum network.
Polar space. A space defined by orthogonal circular dimensions, where any point can be represented on a spherical surface by coordinates (r, θ, φ, …), with r the radius and the rest are angular directions. In QR, our space is a three-dimensional spherical surface inside quantum space.
Positivism. The nineteenth century fallacy that science must only reference what can be physically observed. According to this view, quantum theory is not science. In QR, quantum theory is science.
Potential energy. Energy that matter has by virtue of its position in a gravitational field. In QR, potential energy is gained or lost due to photon exchanges with the gravitational field.
Program. Processing stored as static information that can be read and executed. In QR, the physical world can’t be both the static program and the output of that program when executed.
Processing. The act of creating or changing information. It has no context and can’t be stored because to store it is a different act.
Proton. The positively charged result when two up and one down quark combine. In QR, these quarks share photons in a triangle structure that leaves positive processing remaining.
Ptolemy’s standard model. The medieval standard model of the universe where heavenly bodies moved around the earth in perfect circles, or circles within circles (epicycles). It wasn’t true, but it predicted the movements of stars for centuries as its followers altered the model when new stars were found.
Quantum collapse. That quantum waves restart at a point when observed. In QR, quantum waves as processing waves restart when a node overloads, which instantly discontinues support for all other instances.
Quantum directions. In QR, a direction that is outside our space. Every point of space has three quantum directions at right angles to the three orthogonal planes that cut through it, and to each other.
Quantum entanglement. Entangled quantum entities share common properties regardless of physical distance. In QR, it occurs when entities share the processing of servers that act regardless of distance.
Quantum field. Quantum processing on the quantum network. In QR, the quantum field explains electrical, magnetic and gravitational fields, and quantum processing explains the strong and weak fields.
Quantum network. The non-physical network that supports quantum processing. In QR, the quantum network underlies space and matter as a screen network underlies the images upon it.
Quantum paradox. That unreal quantum events cause real physical events. In QR, there is no paradox because a real quantum world causes the physical world to “exist” as a virtual reality.
Quantum process. In QR, the fundamental network command that sets a circle of values at right angles to the surface of our space.
Quantum processing. Quantum computers tap into quantum processing, which is described by qubits rather than bits. In QR, quantum processing runs regardless of whether we tap into it or not.
Quantum randomness. Events like radiation that aren’t predictable by any prior physical events. In QR, they arise inevitably from quantum server choices that we have no access to.
Quantum realism. The monism that what quantum theory describes is the only reality and the physical world is virtual.
Quantum space. A four-dimensional space defined by the links of the quantum network.
Quantum spin. The imaginary rotation of a quantum entity into a complex dimension outside our space. In QR, it is the real rotation of a quantum entity that extends into quantum space.
Quantum tunneling. When a quantum matter entity “tunnels” past a barrier it can’t pass through to appear outside it. In QR, quantum matter entities do this by teleportation because every cycle they restart based on their quantum field.
Quantum wave. An imaginary three-dimensional wave vibrating into an imaginary fourth dimension. In QR, quantum waves really exist and vibrate into a real fourth dimension.
Quarks. Up or down elementary particles with one-third charges that cannot exist alone. In QR, they are the phase options when 3 extreme light rays collide to almost fill the channels of a plane.
Quark strings. In QR, protons and neutrons are closed quark strings that share photons in a triangle. In an atom nucleus, their quarks recombine into a single quark string with triangular connections that closes back on itself.
Reboot. When a processor restarts its processing from scratch. In QR, every physical event is a quantum node reboot.
Realism. That there is a reality that exists apart from our observation of it. In physical realism, that reality is physical but in quantum realism, the reality is quantum.
Reality. That which exists independently of the observer to cause an observation. In QR, reality is that which exists to an observer, and this includes physical reality.
Relativity principle. That the laws of physics are the same in every reference frame. In QR and relativity theory, it applies because we observe via matter that adjusts its time and space when it moves.
Renormalization. A mathematical technique that makes the infinities of field theory go away if particles interact via other particles. In QR, it is the mathematical trick that pulls physical reality from the quantum hat.
Reverse engineering. An iterative method of deducing processing by observing its output. In QR, it is the scientific method used to deduce quantum processing from physical observations.
Second law of thermodynamics. A statistical law that disorder always increases for any closed system. In QR, it derives from the quantum law of all action that also generates the evolution of order.
Server. A source of information or processing to one or more clients. In QR, the unity of a quantum wave derives from its common server.
Schrödinger’s cat. An attempt to link the “absurdity” of quantum superposition to our macro-reality. In QR, it doesn’t work because every interaction causes quantum collapse, not just those that involve our consciousness.
Science. A way to ask questions of reality, not a fixed set of ideas. QR is fully compatible with science.
Simulation hypothesis. That our physical reality is a representation so realistic that its participants are unaware that they are living in a simulation, e.g. The Matrix. In contrast, QR’s virtual reality doesn’t reflect any substantive physical reality elsewhere, so it is not a simulation hypothesis.
Singularity. The prediction that matter can exist at a point of infinite density, based on extrapolating equations beyond their known application. In QR, the bandwidth of space denies this possibility.
Small rip. The QR alternative to the “big bang”. It proposes that one node of the quantum network separated to serve one photon in one unit of space, which then booted up our universe.
Solipsism. That the physical world exists only as a dream of the mind. QR is not solipsism because it accepts that there is a real world out there, apart from the observer.
Space. The three dimensions that matter exists and moves in. In QR, space is a network surface that can transmit quantum waves.
Special relativity. Einstein’s theory that when matter moves it alters its space and time to keep the speed of light constant. In QR, this happens because matter moves by teleports that change its space and time.
Speed of light. The speed at which light moves in a vacuum. In QR, it reflects the cycle rate of the quantum network when it is not under any other load.
Standard model. A particle model where 5 invisible fields, 62 fundamental particles, 16 charges, 14 bosons and 24 data-fitted parameters explain the equations of physics. In QR, it is an after-the-fact model based on virtual particles that don’t exist.
Standing wave. When active waves continually collide to give a stationary effect. In QR, all matter arises from quantum standing waves.
String theory. That one-dimensional strings generate the equations of physics by acting in 11 dimensions. Since it allows 10500versions and doesn’t predict anything, it is a zombie theory.
Strong force. The force that holds quarks together in the nucleus. QR attributes it to quarks orientating to share photons in a closed loop.
Superposition. That a single quantum wave can simultaneously occupy incompatible physical states, e.g. a photon’s quantum wave can pass through two slits at once. In QR, it arises because quantum entities exist as quantum waves that spread to all possible destinations via the quantum network.
Teleport. When a matter quantum entity like an electron “moves” to a new location when there is no possible path for it to travel there. In QR, all matter moves by teleporting.
Time. What separates different physical events at the same point. In QR, time “passes” as quantum cycles complete, so the past no longer exists and the future is undecided.
Time travel. The conjecture that time is a dimension that one can travel back or forth along. In QR, time is not a dimension and traveling back or forth “in time” contradicts causality and choice respectively.
Transfer problem. That a transfer between nodes of a network could be lost. In QR, the quantum network avoids this by the pass-it-on protocol, that every transfer is immediately accepted as an interrupt.
Transverse circle. A circle of values transverse to the surface of space that represents the electromagnetic vibrations of a photon in a given polarization plane.
Young’s two slit experiment. That shining light through two slits gives an interference pattern on a screen. In QR, as in quantum theory, this happens because photons are quantum waves not particles.
Uncertainty principle. That one can know a quantum particle’s exact position or momentum but not both at once. In QR, it arises because a wave interaction can reveal position or wavelength but not both.
Up quark. A first-generation quark with a strange plus ⅔rds charge. In QR, it is a head-tail-tail three-way collision of extreme light that almost fills the channels of a node plane with a positive remainder.
Validity. That the constructs of a theory represent what they are supposed to. Invalid constructs often don’t predict well. In QR, virtual particles are an invalid construct. See also this Research Roadmap page.
Virtual reality hypothesis. That our physical reality is a virtual reality so realistic that its participants are unaware that they are living in a virtual reality.
Virtualism. That physical events are the processing output of some unspecified “other”, whether a great mind, another physical world’s processing, or quantum reality. In QR, the “other” is quantum reality.
Virtual particle. A particle that mediates a force at a distance that can never be verified because an invisible field creates it and it is consumed by its effect. In QR, virtual particles aren’t necessary because quantum processing can explain their effects equally well.
Wave-particle duality. The magical ability of a quantum particle to act like a wave or a particle as required, even though no physical particle can act like a wave nor can any physical wave act like a particle. In QR, this “miracle” occurs because quantum waves appear to be particles in physical events.
Weak force. The idea that virtual particles called weak bosons cause neutrons to turn into protons after about fifteen minutes in empty space. In QR, neutrinos cause this “force”.
Weak bosons. Massive virtual particles invented to explain the weak force. In QR, neutrinos cause this effect.
WIMPs. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles invented to explain dark matter based on no evidence at all. In QR, it is another failed prediction of the standard model because dark matter isn’t particle based.
Zitterbewegung. The natural “trembling” of quantum matter predicted by quantum theory. In QR, it is the basis of all matter movement.
Zombie theory. A theory that make no new predictions and can’t be falsified, like a zombie that has no progeny and cannot be killed. A scientifically “dead” theory, e.g. multiverse theory.