The analysis so far gives no basis for magnetism and unless it can, the model again fails. We know that dividing a magnet gives two small magnets and joining two small magnets gives a big one. If big magnets come from smaller ones, all magnetism traces back to the smallest possible magnet, an electron, which is like a tiny magnet because it spins. In essence, every electron is essentially a little magnet whose north pole is its spin direction so magnetism relates to quantum spin.

We also know that metals become magnetic when their electrons, which are tiny magnets, are free to align the same way. If the electrons in a material spin randomly the net effect is zero but if they align the result is a magnet (Figure 5.11). Metals become magnets when their electron spins align but plastics can’t become magnetic because their electrons aren’t free to align. When electron spins align there is magnetism so *a*ll magnetism occurs when electrons align their spins.

Spin is a basic property of quantum matter, like mass and charge. In current physics, an electron as a point particle can’t spin but in quantum realism an electron has a structure that really does spin. All quantum entities spin when their quantum structures rotate. So just as matter spreads mass and charge on the quantum network, it also spreads spin as an inherent property of the quantum field.

The Pauli exclusion principle states that opposite-spin electrons can occupy the same point but same-spin electrons can’t. In quantum realism, this is because opposite spin electrons turn into different parts of quantum space, so if one electron spins clockwise and another anti-clockwise at the same point they don’t overlap. In contrast same-spin electrons at the same point compete for the same quantum space that only one can fill. If quantum matter is processing that spreads, the same thing will happen to the quantum field around it to a diminished degree.

If matter spreads the spin of its electrons on the quantum network, electron instances between opposite magnets will fill different parts of quantum space, while between two same magnetic poles they will occupy the same quantum space. In effect, between two opposite magnets the quantum fields “fit together” better than between two same pole magnets. This will affect the load but the effect will be minimal because electrons have a tiny mass. But as with charge, the *interaction* will alter the cycle rate between magnets. One magnetic pole will cause the quantum field of an opposite pole to cycle faster closer to itself, again causing attraction by biasing its matter restarts. In contrast, between two same poles, the effect will be to make cycles take longer giving repulsion. *Magnetism then is quantum spin interacting positively and negatively on the quantum network. *

This logic also suggests how electricity causes magnetism. What we call electricity occurs when electrons move. Since electrons are one-dimensional matter, their matter axes must align in the movement direction for this to happen. When electrons align their matter axes to move as electricity, this also aligns their spins to give magnetism. A current creates a magnetic field because electrons align their spins when they move. Conversely, when a magnet moves, the magnetic field changes at right angles to a line from the magnet causing electrons to move that way as a current.

Attributing magnetism to the spread of quantum spin also explains its other properties. Charge can divide into positive and negative parts because a processing remainder is absolute but spin that is clockwise from one side is anti-clockwise from the other, so magnets divided give more magnets. Magnetism also disperses faster than charge because while charge spreads in two dimensions spin has an extra dimension to spread into. More could be added, but this is sufficient to attribute magnetic fields to the spin direction property of the quantum field.