Every physical interaction must be observed from outside itself. Quantum theory ensures this by requiring an external observation to trigger a physical event. It also requires the event location to be chosen randomly from the quantum distribution, not based on any other physical event. It is thus possible that both the acts of observation and choice are generated from outside the observed physical system entirely.
When photons entangle in physics, the entities involved entangle to become one ensemble that instantly knows what happens to either, even if they are too far apart to physically exchange data. This isn’t information exchange but has the same effect, so when nerve units entangle by synchrony, the ensemble can collapse to observe any field point. This suggests that distant brain areas don’t exchange data by wiring but by forming a common quantum system that observes. Distant nerve areas share data by entangling into a single quantum entity that can observe and choose. Applying Penrose’s logic to nerves, if tubulins can synchronize receptor molecules to observe as one, brains can synchronize nerves to do the same. A quantum effect then creates the observer we call “I”.
It isn’t proposed that all the brain’s nerves synchronize but that local synchronies let nerves entangle to solve local problems, allowing a cascade from microcolumns to macrocolumns and so on, step-by-step. Nor is it required that nerves synchronize perfectly, as only some need to do so to achieve the effect. To the old adage that nerves that wire together fire together should be added that nerves that fire together observe together. Creating an observer-observed reality involves not only combining observed pixels by information processing but also merging nerve cell observers by entanglement. What we call consciousness is then nerve synchronies merging local quantum observers into a global observer.
A single neuron opens a small observation window on physical reality and many neurons acting in synchrony open a bigger window. The brain solved the binding problem by using layer upon layer of neural synchronies to open a global window by entanglement, hence:
a. Consciousness takes time. A global neural synchrony takes time to form.
b. Consciousness scales. Synchrony applies at multiple scales of brain activity.
c. Consciousness cascades. Small-scale synchronies lead to large-scale synchronies.
The following sections give more details.