In current physics, the fundamental entities of the standard model are described in terms of mass, charge and energy, where energy relates directly to mass.

Quantum realism describes the basic entities of physics in terms of quantum processing. Mass is the net processing that repeats endlessly when a node “hangs” the quantum network, charge is the net processing left-over that never runs, and energy is the processing transfer rate per cycle. Figure 4.16 summarizes this model based on mass, charge and energy:

1. Space. A point of empty space is a node that runs one quantum process in every channel. The net processing is zero so it has no mass, the transfer rate is averages zero so it has no net energy and a zero remainder gives no charge.

2. Photon. A photon can’t stop to be weighed but its net processing at each node gives it mass, its processing transfer rate gives it energy, and no processing left over gives it no charge.

3. Electron. An electron fills the channels of a node axis with positive processing to give mass and the processing remainder gives it a negative charge.

4. Neutrino. A neutrino’s axis channels are filled with processing that nearly cancels, to give a tiny mass, while the remainders cancel to zero charge.

5. Quark. A quark is a three-way photon collision that doesn’t quite fill the channels of a plane but its net processing repeats so it has mass and the remainder gives one-third charges according to phase (up or down).

6. Anti-matter. Anti-matter versions of electrons, neutrinos and quarks are derived by reversing the processing. The processing demand is the same giving the same mass but an opposite remainder gives an opposite charge.

*In quantum realism, space is a null processing circle, light is space distributed and matter is extreme light colliding as a standing quantum wave, so mass is a processing demand that repeats, charge is a processing remainder that repeats and energy is the processing transfer rate. This covers the basic properties of all the basic entities of physics*.