Dirac’s equations predicted anti-matter before it was found but didn’t say why every matter particle had an “evil twin” of the same mass but opposite charge. The standard model added an anti-matter column to fit the facts but that matter has an inverse is one of the most baffling findings of physics. If matter is a substance, what is an “anti-substance”? Why does nature even allow anti-electrons that can instantly annihilate electrons?

In contrast, if matter arises from quantum processing, it is possible to run the same processing in reverse, as a process setting a circle of values one-way can set the same values in reverse. In a reverse cycle, instead of a photon first going up on the surface of space and then down, it will first go down and then up. This implies two photon processing possibilities, namely “first-up” or “first-down”.

If an anti-electron is the same photons as an electron processing a reverse cycle, the resulting overload gives same net processing mass but an opposite remainder charge, so an anti-electron has the same mass as an electron but a positive charge, as observed. Processing implies anti-processing so the same logic applies to every matter particle. A quantum processing model predicts the existence of anti-matter and also that anti-electrons will annihilate electrons by turning both back into photons. It follows that anti- matter is to matter as neutrinos are to electrons – necessary byproduct.

Figure 4.6 summarizes the basic leptons of the standard model by their photon constituents as follows:

1. **Matter**. First-up extreme photons collide to give either an:

i. Electron (4.6a). First-up heads collide to give mass and a negative remainder gives a negative charge.

ii. Neutrino (4.6b). First-up heads that are not entirely synchronous mostly cancel first-down tails to give a tiny mass but the remainders cancel fully to give zero charge.

2. **Anti-matter**. First-down extreme photons collide to give either an:

i. Anti-electron (4.6c). First-down heads collide to give mass and a positive remainder gives a positive charge.

ii. Anti-neutrino (4.6d). First-down heads mostly cancel first-down tails to give a tiny mass but the remainders cancel entirely to give zero charge.

In sum, quantum realism derives all the fundamental leptons of the standard model from extreme photons.