Dirac’s equations predicted anti-matter before it was found but they didn’t say why nature had given every matter particle an “evil twin” of the same mass but opposite charge. The standard model just added an anti-matter column to fit the facts but that the matter we see has an inverse remains one of the most baffling discoveries of physics. Why does nature even allow anti-electrons that can instantly annihilate electrons?
In quantum realism, anti-matter is to matter as neutrinos are to electrons – a necessary alternative. If our universe began with one photon, then it had to first vibrate up or down with respect to the surface of space. A clockwise rotation in space is anti-clockwise from the other side (Figure 4.6a) but a first-up rotation on a surface stays that way however it is viewed(Figure 4.6b). The first photon had to choose between first–up or first-down processing and all its offspring followed suit. So all the photons in an electron process the same way, say first-up.
All processing has the property that it can run in reverse so processing implies anti-processing, e.g. a quantum process that sets a circle of values from a start point can set the same values in reverse. So if an electron is photons processing one way, the same processing in reverse is an anti-electron. And if reversing an electron’s processing gives an anti-electron, the same logic applies to every matter particle.
If mass is the net processing and charge is processing left-over, an anti-electron will have the same mass as an electron but opposite charge. A processing model of matter predicts the existence of anti-matter and its properties, including that an anti-electron will “annihilate” an electron, as both turn back into photons.
Figure 4.7 defines the basic leptons by their photon components as follows:
1. Matter. First-up photons collide to give either an:
i. Electron (4.7a). “Up” heads collide to give mass and the negative remainders give negative charge.
ii. Neutrino (4.7b). “Up” heads mostly cancel “down” tails to give a tiny mass but the remainders cancel fully giving no charge.
2. Anti-matter. First-down photons collide to give either an:
i. Anti-electron (4.7c). “Down” heads collide to give mass and the processing remainder gives a positive charge.
ii. Anti-neutrino (4.7d). “Down” heads mostly cancel “up” tails to give a tiny mass but the remainders cancel entirely to give no charge.
In sum, quantum realism derives the “fundamental” leptons of the standard model from photons.