# QR4.3.1 Electrons

In current physics, the small mass and negative charge of an electron exists as a point particle with zero dimensions. But a particle has mass by means of a matter substance, how can a particle with no extent have substance and hence mass? The standard model doesn’t do a good job of explaining what an electron actually is.

In quantum realism, matter isn’t an inherent substance but a quantum processing output and after the first event, only high energy photons existed as processing passed on by the quantum network. A computer network node passes data to another via a channel so let us assume that a quantum node passes on processing by channels. If the neighbors of a node exist as a sphere around it, they represent all the rays of light that can arrive at the node. As a ray of light on one axis can have many different photons, each with a different polarization plane, let a quantum channel be a quantum node’s ability to pass on one photon, so the number of quantum channels per quantum network node is very large. Computer channels are mostly duplex, as they transfer in both directions, so we assume that quantum channels are the same. Finally, as one photon is the smallest possible transfer, the quantum channel bandwidth is expected to be the quantum process defined earlier. This logic suggests that one quantum node channel:

1. Receives processing from one axis line

2. For one photon polarization plane

3. Up to a bandwidth of one quantum process per quantum cycle

4. Where photon streams are in lockstep order so they can’t overtake

5. And being duplex, can accept photons from either axis direction.

One quantum channel is then represented by a point with a line through it plus a plane that cuts the line at the photon’s polarization and it can accept and pass on photons going in opposite directions. It follows that if two photons with the same polarization going in opposite directions meet head-on in a channel, it will accept both and pass both on, unless the total processing of the photons exceeds the bandwidth of one quantum process. If it did, the photons would overload the channel and restart the processing in a physical event. As normal photons are one quantum process spread over many nodes, this doesn’t happen for the light we see, so current physics generally assumes that light rays never collide.

Photons meeting head-on don’t overload a channel if their processing sum is below its bandwidth but what if it isn’t? This model allows light at the highest possible frequency, of a wavelength of two nodes. Let an extreme photon be one quantum process shared over two quantum nodes, with half a quantum process in each node. If two such photons meet head-on, each requesting a half quantum process, the total processing will be one quantum process, so channel will overload and they will “collide”.

As photons spin on their axis of movement, photons that overload can restart in another axis channel, but this can’t occur if every channel overloads. Now let an extreme light ray be extreme photons filling every channel of a transfer axis. If two such rays meet head-on, every channel on one axis overloads at once (Figure 4.2), with no free channels for the photons to restart in. That extreme light rays meet head-on is obviously unlikely but it must have occurred in the early plasma by the quantum law of all action, that everything possible eventually happens (3.6.3).

Figure 4.3 shows the result for one channel, with every channel the same. In this picture, “head” refers to the photon leading half and “tail” to the following half. Two heads, of half a quantum process each, overload the quantum channel bandwidth so both photons restart next cycle. Two new photons then set off in opposite directions but now the tails collide in another overload that restarts the photons again. This overload/restart repeats every quantum cycle because every channel on the axis is the same. The network that once hosted only waves now has the permanent processing bump that we call an electron.

It is stable because any processing arriving on that axis finds all the channels taken while anything at right angles passes right through using different channels. An electron in network terms is a repeating overload, like a stuck record that endlessly repeats

Experiments show that electromagnetic waves can repeatedly interact to form static states (Audretch,2004, p23) as repeated observations can maintain a quantum state if the time delay is short (Itao,Heizen, Bollinger, & Wineand, 1990). Feynman’s PhD partitioned the electron wave equation into opposing advanced and retarded waves but he didn’t pursue it, perhaps because electrons are particles. The Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory later proposed that retarded and advanced waves underlie charge (Wheeler & Feynman, 1945). Cramer’s transactional theory also uses retarded and advanced waves (Cramer, 1986) and er,1986). Wolff has suggested that electrons are in and out spherical waves (Wolff,M.,2001). If electromagnetic waves can collide to form standing waves as other waves do (Figure 4.4), an electron could be a quantum standing wave created when extreme photons collide.

This contradicts the standard model in several ways. Instead of a particle of matter substance with no size, which makes no sense, an electron that occupies one “point” node of the quantum network has a size, just as a screen pixel does. Instead of having no structure, an electron is made of photons that fill all the channels of one axis. If matter is light trapped in a never-ending loop, it isn’t inert at all. It is “frozen” in place but still pulses at the speed of light, like a standing wave that is both static and moving. And as this only applies to the channels of one axis, an electron is only one-dimensional matter.

When a computer “hangs” in an infinite loop and doesn’t respond to input, we restart it, but sometimes this doesn’t work. If a node of our network “locks” in an infinite loop that a restart can’t fix, it is called a glitch but for the quantum network, the matter glitch was an evolution not an error.

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