In the standard model, quarks are fundamental point particles, unrelated to electrons or neutrinos, that come in two types called “up” and “down”, with different charges. An up quark has a plus two-thirds charge and a down quark has a minus one-third charge that lets two up quarks and a down quark combine into a positively charged proton that is the nucleus of Hydrogen, the first element of the periodic table. Each new periodic table element has one more proton plus some neutrons which arise from one up quark and two down quarks. Quarks form the protons and neutrons in the nuclei of all known atoms.

If the electron’s mass is based on a one-axis interaction of extreme photons, quark mass must also arise in same way. The last section covered all the ways photons can interact on one axis, so a quark can’t be a one-axis result but it could be a three-way interaction. If three rays of extreme light meet in a node, the interaction must be on a plane, as shown in Figure 4.9, instead of on an axis. Such an event is unlikely but again it must have occurred in the early plasma by the quantum law of all action.

A three-axis collision has an interesting symmetry, as photons on any axis half exist on the other two by the cosine rule, so any quark axis is one ray vs. two others at half strength, which is a lepton type collision. But applying this feature to one axis doesn’t leave enough light to do the same to the other two.

A three-way extreme light interaction isn’t stable alone but it turns out that unlike electrons, quarks alone are so unstable that they can’t exist alone. Had it not been so, the model would fail as there are few other reverse engineering options, but a three-way interaction has a symmetry that may let quarks be stable in a group. But first, consider the processing needed to fill all the channels of a *plane* through a node to achieve the stability that electrons achieve for a *line*.