Standard model quarks are fundamental particles not related to electrons and neutrinos. They come in two types called “up” and “down”, with different masses and charges. An up quark has a plus ⅔rds charge and a down quark has a minus ⅓rd charge for no known reason, except this conveniently lets two down quarks combine with an up quark to give a proton that is the nucleus of Hydrogen, the first periodic table element.

For quark mass to arise like that of an electron, it must also be based on an extreme photon collision. So if leptons are a two-way collision, quarks must be a three-way collision, where three beams of extreme light meet in one node (Figure 4.9). Again, this unlikely event must have occurred in the first plasma by the quantum law of all action. The collision is in a plane, so if one axis line needs two beams to fill its channels, it needs four beams to fill the dimensions of a plane. Two beams colliding fill the channel set of one axis but three beams colliding fill only 1.5 channel sets, not the two that a plane has

Hence the result can’t be stable alone and indeed quarks are never observed alone. Had this not been so, the model would fail, leaving few other options for consistent reverse engineering at this point.

A three-axis collision has an interesting symmetry, as photons on any of the three axes half exist on the other two by the cosine rule so any quark axis is one beam vs. two others at half strength, i.e. a lepton type collision. That a quark is a semi-stable symmetry that can combine with other quarks to give a stable planar structure is now explored.